Time for an update on my One-Shot learning approach using a Siamese LSTM-based Deep Neural Network we developed for telecommunication network fault identification through traffic analysis. A lot of small details had to change as we upgraded our machine to the latest TensorFlow and Keras. That alone introduced a few new behaviors… As well as we obtained new data for new examples and found out some problems with our model. I don’t intend to go through all changes, but some of the main ones as well as some interesting findings. It feels a lot like potty training a cat… If you are new to this series, you can refer to my previous posts: “Do Telecom Networks Dreams of Siamese Memories?” and “What Siamese Dreams are made of…”
First, Batch Normalization in Keras is now on my black magic list 😊 . I’ll have to dig more into how it is implemented, especially the differences between train time and prediction time. For a long time, I was wondering why I was getting extremely good train loss and poor validation losses until I removed the Batch Normalization I had on the input layer. So, something to investigate there.
Secondly, I introduced data generators for training and validation data. For a Siamese network approach where you must provide tons of similar and dissimilar pairs, using generators is a must to master at some point! Once you get the gist of it, it is quite convenient. I found Shervine Amidi blog: “A detailed example of how to use data generators with Keras” to be a very well explained example to build upon. I would recommend it to anyone learning about Keras data generators.
Along the way I found that my triplet_loss function as shown in previous post was flawed… because of the way I am packing the output of the base neural network with Keras concatenate, I must explicitly specify the ranges. Moreover, I painfully understood that a loss function in Keras is passed a mini-batch of y_true/y_pred values, not individual values. Well, that was not clear for me at first sight… I took also the opportunity to rework the logic to use more of a Keras approach than TensorFlow (subtle changes). Below is the new loss function.
The fourth interesting thing to mention is that while I was debugging all those issues, I felt a need to better visualize the results than simply looking at the prediction value. I reduced the output vector space from 10 dimensions to 3 dimensions as anyway I do not have that much different examples for now, so 3D should be more than enough to separate them. Furthermore, I changed my output layer to use a sigmoid activation function to limit the output space to the [0,1] range. Those changes in turn enabled me to look at the location of the predicted point in the transformed space e.g. a traffic pattern now corresponds to a 3D location in this output space.
Below I made a video of how this projection evolve through training. Initially, as the neural net is initialized with random values, the output points clutter together at the center. But quickly we see them being separated and each taking a corner of the space. Sure, there is a lot of bouncing back and forth as the neural net try to find a better solution, but we can see that we can find a sweet spot where the different traffic patterns are well separated. As a side note we see three different traffic patterns here. Normal traffic in green and two different error cases, one dramatic in red where all traffic is blocked, and one subtler error in orange where we reach the capacity limit of the communication link.
Now while acquiring more data from our test bed, we are trying out with different loss functions to separate the traffic. One of my colleague has just posted on a comparison between different loss functions: “Lossless Triplet Loss” . I might also try some different loss functions and show my findings.
I hope this shows that One-Shot learning using Siamese networks can be used for other purpose than face recognition. In this case we are successfully using it for signalling traffic categorization and fault detection.